- Who beat Garry Kasparov, the reigning World Chess Champion? Not Murray Campbell or any members of his IBM team. Deep Blue beat Kasparov. Deep Blue designs better chess games than any of them can design. None of them can author a winning game against Kasparov. Deep Blue can. Yes, but. Yes, but. You may be tempted to insist at this point that when Deep Blue beats Kasparov at chess, its brute-force search methods are entirely unlike the exploratory processes that Kasparov uses when he conjures up his chess moves. But that is simply not so - or at least it is not so in the only way that could make a difference to the context of this discussion of the Darwinian perspective on creativity. Kasparov's brain is made of organic material and has an architecture importantly unlike that of Deep Blue, but it is still, so far as we know, a massively parallel search engine that has built up, over time, an outstanding array of heuristic pruning techniques that keep it from wasting time on unlikely branches. There is no doubt that the investment in R & D has a different profile in the two cases; Kasparov has methods of extracting good design principles from past games, so that he can recognize, and know enough to ignore, huge portions of the game space that Deep Blue must still patiently canvas seriatim. Kasparov's "insight" dramatically changes the shape of the search he engages in, but it does not constitute "an entirely different" means of creation. Whenever Deep Blue's exhaustive searches close off a type of avenue as probably negligible (a difficult, but not impossible task), it can reuse that R & D whenever it is appropriate, just as Kasparov does. Deep Blue's designers have done much of this analytical work and given it as an innate endowment to Deep Blue, but Kasparov has likewise benefited from the fruits of hundreds of thousands of person-years of chess exploration transmitted to him by players, coaches, and books and subsequently installed in the habits of his brain.
The fact is that the search space for chess is too big even for Deep Blue to explore exhaustively in real time, so like Kasparov, it prunes its search trees by taking calculated risks, and like Kasparov, it often gets these risks precalculated. Both presumably do massive amounts of "brute-force" computation on their very different architectures. After all, what do neurons know about chess? Any work they do must be brute-force work of one sort or another.
It may seem that I am begging the question in favor of a computational, AI approach by describing the work done by Kasparov's brain in this way, but the work has to be done somehow, and no other way of getting the work done has ever been articulated. It won't do to say that Kasparov uses "insight" or "intuition", since that just means that Kasparov himself has no privileged access, no insight, into how the good results come to him. So since nobody - least of all Kasparov - knows how Kasparov's brain does it, there is not yet any evidence to support the claim that Kasparov's means are "entirely unlike" the means exploited by Deep Blue. One should remember this when tempted to insist that "of course" Kasparov's methods are hugely different. What on earth could provoke one to go out on a limb like that? Wishful thinking? Fear? (s 263-265)